What is AMH, the anti-Müllerian hormone?

Have you ever asked yourself what in the world is AMH? Learn all about the anti-Müllerian hormone: the hormone that can tell you a lot about your fertility.

In this guide you will learn about AMH, including how can you really gain understanding by combining your anti-Müllerian hormone result with the latest in fertility science. Once you learn the power of this information, you will be able to better navigate the complex world of women’s health. For even more scientific explanations, see our list of references at the end of the page!

Introduction to AMH

The anti-Müllerian hormone is a hormone released by small, growing egg cells in your ovaries [1]. It is a reliable metric for measuring your ovarian reserve, or how many eggs you have left: this is the foundation of your fertility, because the eggs you’re born with are the only eggs you have for life. However, AMH has a lot more to offer than just predicting your fertile lifespan. AMH is widely used in IVF settings and may assist in the diagnosis of several diseases.

How to interpret AMH

Serum AMH levels VS. Age

Serum AMH levels vs. Age

The interpretation of AMH needs to take several factors into account, and AMH reference ranges should be age-specific. In ivary’s own study that included over 1,000 women, we evaluated AMH values at specific ages. At the age of 25, most women have values between 2.7 and 6.1, while at 40, the normal range is between 0.4 and 1.9. AMH values show significant differences from woman to woman. While a woman aged 33 may have an AMH of 1.9, a different woman could have an AMH of 8.0 at the same age [2]. These different results have different implications for the age at which these women will enter menopause.

This is why we calculate normal AMH ranges based on age-related percentiles. Like the reference charts that help parents understand where their children stand compared to their peers on height and weight, an AMH percentile range helps women understand what their AMH levels are like compared to other women their age. With a percentile range, you can more easily see how many women of the same age have higher values than you and how many women have lower values than you. Because in the end, all of our prediction ‘magic’ is just plain statistics.

The clinical implementation of AMH is quite new, and we are the first ones to admit that it is a very complicated subject that we are still learning more about each day. Even science has not yet found a consensus on all factors influencing AMH results just yet; for example, some studies say that contraception decreases AMH values, while others say it has no effect on AMH. For more information on the latest scientific understandings and disagreements, just read on.

Predicting the future with AMH

A female is born with 1 to 2 million egg cells. But this number decreases steadily until the end of her fertile lifespan, when she reaches menopause [3].

The decline of egg cell numbers can be measured using AMH, which reflects the decreasing amount of egg cells in the ovaries. Throughout life, AMH values vary significantly between women. In general, there is a plateau of AMH values around the age of 25 [1]. From 25  onward, serum AMH levels are continuously decreasing, which makes it the best marker for ovarian reserve from that age on [4]. Using the AMH, it is possible to determine the remaining ovarian reserve and estimate how much time a woman has left before her ovarian reserve is exhausted. The lower the level of AMH in the blood, the lower the number of egg cells present in the ovaries and the sooner the egg cell pool will be so low that a woman reaches menopause [5,6].

AMH in IVF

Several studies confirm the value of AMH for predicting the response to ovarian stimulation in assisted reproductive technologies.

So, when you’re at an IVF clinic for the first time, they will surely check your AMH. What does it tell them? Well, first, AMH allows your doctors to estimate your ovarian reserve. Second and more importantly, AMH has the potential to predict how you are going to react to hormonal stimulation. When you are going through a fertility treatment, there’s always a risk of not growing enough egg cells in a cycle (so-called ‘poor response’) or growing too many egg cells (so-called ‘hyper-response’). Either case is not optimal for your treatment. Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) in women with too many growing egg cells poses several health risks and may even be lethal; therefore, it’s essential to evaluate AMH before treatment. Studies show that AMH can identify people at risk for OHSS and that, with an optimised stimulation scheme, the number of women experiencing the syndrome can be kept to a minimum [7,8].

Asada – Oocytes retrieved per AMH | ivary

 Asada [7] Relationship between AMH and the number of retrieved oocytes

AMH for diagnoses

In addition to giving you information about your ovarian reserve and potential response in clinical settings, AMH is also a valuable tool in diagnosing several medical conditions.

A high AMH may be a sign of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). PCOS is a disease which affects around 10% of women and has an impact on female fertility [9]. AMH is a good indicator for the number of growing follicles in your ovaries, and may therefore be useful for diagnosis. An AMH value above the 75th percentile is already associated with a high risk for PCOS, and age-specific thresholds can further improve the accuracy of the diagnosis [101112]. If your AMH is above this range, we recommend you to see a doctor or contact our medical experts. You can find more information on PCOS our resource website.

The controversy of AMH

Although AMH is currently widely accepted as the best biomarker for ovarian reserve, there is a lot of controversy about what this actually means.

AMH history & assay development

It all started in 1990, when the first AMH assay saw the light of day [1]. Over the following years, commercial assays became available, and AMH measurement and its clinical implications gained more and more attention. This led to the development of several assays: Access AMH, Gen II Beckman-Coulter, picoAMH, Elecsys and many more. In this jungle of available assays, it became quite clear that results are not so easily transferable from one assay to another, and that standard reference ranges are hard to define.

There has been a lot of discussion about how different AMH assays generate different results. For example, AMH levels measured with the Access AMH are 16% lower and Elecsys AMH results are 20% lower than results from the Gen II Beckman-Coulter [2]. This difference may sometimes have drastic implications, as a study found that up to 10% of women with high ovarian reserve would have been misclassified to a greater dose of medical treatment based on the Access AMH assay results compared to Elecsys assay results [3].

In the past, there have been several issues with the commercially available hormonal assays. Varying results between assays and even between laboratories complicate the establishment of a general reference standard [4]. Newer assays, like the Elecsys assay, have been shown to be less variable [5]. Still, reference ranges are center-specific and highly sensitive assays like the picoAMH may further increase the proportion of samples with detectable levels [6].

At ivary, we want to provide you with the most reliable AMH result possible. That is why we conducted our own normative study with over 1,000 women to develop our own reference percentiles [7]. All these measurements were made with the Roche Elecsys Assay. Therefore, for consistency, we currently only accept AMH values from partner labs which also use this assay.

AMH & menopause

The good news is that AMH definitely correlates with age at menopause, whether this refers to the remaining time to menopause or actual menopause age prediction [8].

Models by Broer (2011) and Tehrani (2011) actually showed that age-specific AMH percentiles can be used for individualised menopause prediction, with an accuracy between 86% to 92% [9,10].

AMH & Menopause | ivary

Broer [9] – Nomogram for the relation between age-specific AMH concentrations and the distribution of age at menopause

However, several studies are critical of individualised menopause prediction. A follow-up on the same cohort used for the Broer (2011) study found that although AMH is predictive of age at menopause, this effect decreases with increasing age of women [11]. This is in line with the findings by De Kat (2016), who found that AMH downfall curves converge at a given time before menopause, making the added value of individualised prediction questionable. Still, the same study confirmed that women with high AMH values stay on high percentiles over time, while women with low AMH values also stay on a low percentile [12].

A major challenge in the individual prediction of menopause is the wide range of the predictable age at menopause. While the natural age at entering menopause usually covers a twenty year span (between 40 and 60 [13]), AMH may only narrow this period down to a 10.1 year variance [11]. Additionally, published studies so far only included women with regular menstrual cycles, and the populations examined were often too small to identify women entering menopause at an extremely young or old age [11].

Nonetheless, knowing whether a woman will enter menopause ten years later or earlier may already be of significant value for her fertile lifespan and future planning. Future studies will hopefully resolve some of the current AMH-related challenges– and ivary will definitely keep you updated on all the newest developments!

AMH & pregnancy

There has been a lot of speculation over whether AMH can predict pregnancy chances or not. Since AMH is a marker for the remaining ovarian reserve, one may think that fewer eggs surely mean fewer chances to get pregnant. BUT there are actually more factors influencing pregnancy chances than just the remaining number of egg cells. The quality of those egg cells for example, plays a crucial role, and this quality decreases with age.

When looking at studies focusing on AMH and pregnancy chances, it becomes quite clear that age is a better predictor of chances to conceive than AMH. Unfortunately, there is currently no scientific way of knowing how good the egg cells inside a woman’s body still are. Although several researchers have seen AMH as a potential marker for egg cell quality, this assumption is far from being confirmed [14-17], and most experts agree that AMH is not better at predicting pregnancy chances than age alone. Young women with low AMH usually have the same pregnancy chances as young women with high AMH, and even women with a low AMH level at an older age may still be able to get pregnant [18-24].

Further studies also examined whether AMH values correlate with the incidence of miscarriage. The probability to have a miscarriage rises with age and is largely dependent on oocyte quality [25]. With the above mentioned research on AMH and egg quality, it is only reasonable to assume that AMH may be connected to miscarriage rates; however, study outcomes in this field remain controversial. Gleicher (2016), for example, found that excessively high as well as very low AMH values are more likely to result in miscarriage [26]. But while some studies confirmed a correlation of AMH with miscarriage rates [27,28], others did not [29,30], and especially in studies using age-specific AMH percentiles, there was no connection found between AMH and miscarriage [18,30].

Which factors influence AMH values?

Well, that is a very good question! As is often the case, there is still some debate about many of the influencing factors. Here is an overview of the potential influences under speculation:

Contraception: There are several studies evaluating the effect of hormonal contraception on AMH values. In a literature review of 2013, it was still unclear whether AMH is influenced by hormonal contraception or not [31]. Although several well designed small studies show no influence on AMH in women before and after contraception treatment [32-34], other recent studies including larger populations agree on a substantial effect of contraception on AMH values, despite many of them being case-control studies and thus more weak and prone to bias. Johnson (2017) showed that AMH values are 17-35% lower in users of contraception compared to non-users [35], Birch Petersen (2015) showed values are 19% lower [36], and Dolleman (2013) found a difference of 11 percentiles [37]. So, while we would agree that there is a certain effect of hormonal contraception on AMH, it is still hard to tell how substantial this effect really is.

Smoking: While smoking has a significant impact on menopause age, it is not so clear whether this influence is also reflected in AMH levels. Some studies show lower AMH levels in smokers, while others find no difference at all [32]. In the more recent studies, no effect of smoking on AMH was found [39,40].

Obesity: Just like smoking, obesity is also a clear indicator for fertility. Still, the effect of being overweight on AMH values is discussed controversially [25].

Ethnicity: In the literature, at least a weak effect of ethnicity on AMH has also been recognised. However, at this point, incorporating ethnicity into an understanding of individual ovarian reserve decline is not feasible [25].

Future outlook

Overall, there are several fields that need further research before reaching a valid scientific conclusion as to how they affect AMH results. AMH has the potential to be an exact marker for menopause, and it is also likely to be used for diagnosing PCOS in the future. AMH measurement represents a new generation of understanding ovarian ageing and the individual decline of female fertility over time.

More detailed studies offer an exciting prospect, and ivary is currently collaborating with leading European fertility centres to fill all the gaps in current scientific knowledge about AMH. We are always updating our resources and will keep you posted about the newest developments!

Me and my anti-müllerian hormone

AMH cannot tell you what your chances of pregnancy are right now or in a given month – but it can tell you how your current fertility looks, as well as giving you information on how your fertility will change over time and when you may expect to reach menopause, and it’s the best marker at doing that. A recent literature review confirmed that there is an undeniable correlation between lower AMH and time to menopause (TTM), and that a single measurement of AMH provides up to 86% – 92% accuracy [1].

Why should I test my AMH?

All in all, it’s important to understand that every woman’s fertility is different, and AMH is a useful way of better understanding where you fit in.

The question of who should test their ovarian reserve is sometimes discussed controversially in scientific circles – but allowing every woman to decide on her own offers many positive aspects and advantages [2,3]. Studies even show that up to 80% of women would consider changing their family planning if confronted with a diminished ovarian reserve [4]. At ivary, we believe that every woman should be empowered to find out more about her fertility, so she can make the appropriate choices for her future.

How to get my AMH tested

For determining the AMH level, a small sample of blood is sufficient– which makes it easy to conduct the test in any lab or at a doctor’s office. In contrast to other hormones, AMH levels are stable during the menstrual cycle, so it does not matter on which day of your cycle the blood is drawn [5]. However, there are some crucial differences when it comes to the choice of laboratory, as different assays come up with different results [6]. That’s why ivary has partnered up with several labs where you can go and easily get your test done. 

The ivary test measures your AMH level, but the results you get are much more than just a number. In conjunction with your lifestyle and medical history, ivary uses your AMH value to tell you where you stand compared to other women your age. We also offer insights into when you are expected to reach the end of fertility and menopause and can point you towards resources and next steps for the future based on your personal measurement and goals.

To power the ivary software, we conducted a normative study of over 1,000 women in order to identify age-specific AMH percentiles [7]; this allows us to now identify the approximate percentile range of any woman who tests her AMH with us. In conjunction with the other data you provide, this range allows us to provide you with an overview of your current ovarian reserve, information on your future fertility compared to the average woman, and resources based to your individual results and goals.

You should be aware that your future fertility can change substantially if you undergo chemotherapy, radiotherapy or ovarian surgery [8,9,10]. Therefore, we recommend to repeat the test about 12 months after you had any of those treatments.

Women’s health resources

We have compiled a list of resources for you to get started with your fertility journey or dig deeper into the topic. Go have a look at our ivary Resources Library, where you will find tons of exciting and free stuff!

Introduction to AMH

  1. Dewailly, D., Andersen, C. Y., Balen, A., et al. (2014). The physiology and clinical utility of anti-Müllerian hormone in women. Human Reproduction Update.
  2. Just, A. (2015). Statistical Evaluation of the value ranges for the anti-mullerian hormone by age with the automated ECLIA (ElektroChemiLumineszenz ImmunoAssay)/Elecsys/Roche. Not Published.
  3. Broekmans, F. J., Soules, M. R., & Fauser, B. C. (2009). Ovarian ageing: Mechanisms and clinical consequences. Endocrine Reviews.
  4. Broer, S. L., Broekmans, F. J. M., Laven, J. S. E., & Fauser, B. C. J. M. (2014). Anti-Müllerian hormone: Ovarian reserve testing and its potential clinical implications. Human Reproduction Update.
  5. Broer, S.L., et al: Anti-Müllerian Hormone Predicts Menopause: A Long-Term Follow-Up Study in Normoovulatry Women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Aug;96(8):2532-9.
  6. Van Disseldorp, J., et al: Relationship of Serum Antimüllerian Hormone Concentration to Age at Menopause. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Jun;93(6):2129-34.
  7. Asada, Y., Morimoto, Y., Nakaoka, Y., et al. (2017). Age-specific serum anti-Müllerian hormone concentration in Japanese women and its usefulness as a predictor of the ovarian response. Reproductive Medicine and Biology, 16(4), 364–373.
  8. Lensen, S. F., Wilkinson, J., Leijdekkers, J. A., et al. (2018). Individualised gonadotropin dose selection using markers of ovarian reserve for women undergoing in vitro fertilisation plus intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI)Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews2.
  9. Bozdag, G., Mumusoglu, S., Zengin, D., Karabulut, E., & Yildiz, B. O. (2016). The prevalence and phenotypic features of polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysisHuman Reproduction31(12).
  10. Lie Fong, S., Laven, J. S. E., Duhamel, A., & Dewailly, D. (2017). Polycystic ovarian morphology and the diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome: Redefining threshold levels for follicle count and serum anti-Müllerian hormone using cluster analysis. Human Reproduction, 32(8), 1723–1731.
  11. Quinn, M. M., Kao, C.-N., Ahmad, A. K., et al. (2017). Age-stratified thresholds of anti-Müllerian hormone improve prediction of polycystic ovary syndrome over a population-based thresholdClin Endocrinol.
  12. Tremellen K, Zander-Fox D (2015). Serum anti-Mullerian hormone assessment of ovarian reserve and polycystic ovary syndrome status over the reproductive lifespan. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 2015 Aug;55(4):384-9.

The controversy of AMH

  1. Hudson, P. L., Dougas, I., K., D. P., Cate, R. L., Epstein, J., Pepnsky, R. B., & Maclaughlin, D. T. (1990). An Immunoassay to Detect Human Mullerian Inhibiting Substance in Males and Females during Normal Development*. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism70(1), 16–22.
  2. Tadros, T., Tarasconi, B., Nassar, J., Benhaim, J.-L., Taieb, J., & Fanchin, R. (2016). New automated antimüllerian hormone assays are more reliable than the manual assay in patients with reduced antral follicle countFertility and Sterility.
  3. Iliodromiti, S., Salje, B., Dewailly, D., et al. (2017). Non-equivalence of anti-Müllerian hormone automated assays—clinical implications for use as a companion diagnostic for individualised gonadotrophin dosingHuman Reproduction Advanced Access Publication on32(8), 1710–1715.
  4. Li, H. W. R., Wong, B. P. C., Ip, W. K., Yeung, W. S. B., Ho, P. C., & Ng, E. H. Y. (2016). Comparative evaluation of three new commercial immunoassays for anti- Müllerian hormone measurementHuman Reproduction31(12), 2796–2802.
  5. Van Zanden, J. J., Wagenmakers-Huizinga, L., Inia, L., & Muller Kobold, A. C. (2016). Comparison of the automated Roche Elecsys Cobas Anti Mullerian Hormone (AMH) assay with the Beckman AMH Gen II ELISA. Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Klinische Chemie En Laboratoriumgeneeskunde.
  6. De Kat, A. C., Broekmans, F. J. M., Van Westing, A. C., Lentjes, E., Verschuren, W. M. M., & Van Der Schouw, Y. T. (2017). A quantitative comparison of anti-Müllerian hormone measurement and its shifting boundaries between two assaysMaturitas101, 12–16.
  7. Just, A. (2015). Statistical Evaluation of the value ranges for the anti-mullerian hormone by age with the automated ECLIA (ElektroChemiLumineszenz ImmunoAssay)/Elecsys/Roche. Not Published.
  8. Depmann, M., Broer, S. L., Van Der Schouw, Y. T., Tehrani, F. R., Eijkemans, M. J., Mol, B. W., & Broekmans, F. J. (2015). Can we predict age at natural menopause using ovarian reserve tests or mother’s age at menopause? A systematic literature reviewMenopause: The Journal of the North American Menopause Society23(2), 224–232.
  9. Broer S, Eijkemans M, Scheffer G, Rooji I, de Vet A, Themmen A, Laven J, de Jong F, te Velde E, Fauser B, B. F. (2011). Anti-Müllerian Hormone Predicts Menopause: A Long-Term Follow-Up Study in Normoovulatry WomenJ Clin Endocrinol Metab96, 2532–2539.
  10. Tehrani, F. R., Shakeri, N., Solaymani-Dodaran, M., & Azizi, F. (2011). Predicting age at menopause from serum antimüllerian hormone concentrationMenopause: The Journal of The North American Menopause Society18(7), 766–770.
  11. Depmann, M., Eijkemans, M. J. C., Broer, S. L., Scheffer, G. J., Van Rooij, I. A. J., Laven, J. S. E., & Broekmans, F. J. M. (2016). Does anti-Müllerian hormone predict menopause in the general population? Results of a prospective ongoing cohort studyHuman Reproduction31(7), 1579–1587.
  12. De Kat, A. C., Van Der Schouw, Y. T., Eijkemans, M. J. C., Herber-Gast, G. C., Visser, J. A., Verschuren, W. M. M., & Broekmans, F. J. M. (2016). Back to the basics of ovarian aging: a population-based study on longitudinal anti-Müllerian hormone declineBMC Medicine.
  13. Te Velde, E. R., & Pearson, P. L. (2002). The variability of female reproductive ageingHuman Reproduction Update8(2), 141–154.
  14. Borges, E., Braga, D. P. A. F., Setti, A., Figueira, R. de C., & Iaconelli, A. (2017). The predictive value of serum concentrations of anti-Müllerian hormone for oocyte quality, fertilization, and implantationJBRA Assisted Reproduction21(3), 176–182.
  15. Irez, T., Ocal, P., Guralp, O., Cetin, M., Aydogan, B., & Sahmay, S. (2011). Different serum anti-Müllerian hormone concentrations are associated with oocyte quality, embryo development parameters and IVF-ICSI outcomesArchives of Gynecology and Obstetrics284(5), 1295–1301.
  16. Kavoussi S, Odenwald K, Boehnlein L, et al. (2015). Antimüllerian hormone as a predictor of good-quality supernumerary blastocyst cryopreservation among women with levelsFertility and Sterility104, 633-6.
  17. Lehmann, P., Vélez, M. P., Saumet, J., et al. (2014). Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH): A reliable biomarker of oocyte quality in IVFJournal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics.
  18. Tremellen, K., & Kolo, M. (2010). Serum anti-Mullerian hormone is a useful measure of quantitative ovarian reserve but does not predict the chances of live-birth pregnancy. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 50(6), 568–572.
  19. Bozdag, G., Polat, M., Yarali, I., & Yarali, H. (2017). Live birth rates in various subgroups of poor ovarian responders fulfilling the Bologna criteriaReproductive BioMedicine Online34, 639–644.
  20. González-Foruria, I., Peñarrubia, J., Borràs, A., et al. (2016). Age, independent from ovarian reserve status, is the main prognostic factor in natural cycle in vitro fertilizationFertility and Sterility106(2), 342–347.e2.
  21. Pereira, N., Setton, R., Petrini, A. C., Lekovich, J. P., Elias, R. T., & Spandorfer, S. D. (2016). Is anti-Müllerian hormone associated with IVF outcomes in young patients with diminished ovarian reserve? Women’s Health (London, England)12(2), 185–92.
  22. Wang, J. G., Douglas, N. C., Nakhuda, G. S., et al. (2010). The association between anti-Müllerian hormone and IVF pregnancy outcomes is influenced by ageReproductive BioMedicine Online21(6), 757–761.
  23. Zarek, S. M., Mitchell, E. M., Sjaarda, L. A., et al. (2015). Is Anti-Müllerian Hormone Associated With Fecundability? Findings From the EAGeR TrialThe Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism100(11), 4215–21.
  24. Steiner, A. Z., Pritchard, D., Stanczyk, F. Z., Kesner, J. S., Meadows, J. W., Herring, A. H., & Baird, D. D. (2017). Association Between Biomarkers of Ovarian Reserve and Infertility Among Older Women of Reproductive AgeJAMA318(14), 1367–1376.
  25. Stoop, D. (2018). Preventing age related fertility loss. (Dominic Stoop, Ed.) (1st ed.). Switzerland: Springer International Publishing.
  26. Gleicher, N., Kushnir, V. A., Sen, A., et al. (2016). Definition by FSH, AMH and embryo numbers of good-, intermediate- and poor-prognosis patients suggests previously unknown IVF outcome-determining factor associated with AMH. Journal of Translational Medicine, 14(172).
  27. Abdelhadi, O. A., Considine, R. V, Acton, A. J., & Gonzalez, F. (2016). Serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels independently predict miscarriage rates following in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer. Fertility and Sterility, 106, e33–e34.
  28. Keane, K., Cruzat, V. F., Wagle, S., Chaudhary, N., Newsholme, P., & Yovich, J. (2017). Specific ranges of anti-Mullerian hormone and antral follicle count correlate to provide a prognostic indicator for IVF outcome. Reproductive Biology, 17(1), 51–59.
  29. La Marca, A., Spada, E., Grisendi, V., Argento, C., Papaleo, E., Milani, S., & Volpe, A. (2012). Normal serum anti-Müllerian hormone levels in the general female population and the relationship with reproductive history. European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, 163(2), 180–184.
  30. Reichman, D. E., Goldschlag, D., & Rosenwaks, Z. (2014). Value of antimüllerian hormone as a prognostic indicator of in vitro fertilization outcome. Fertility and Sterility.
  31. Grande, M., Borobio, V., Bennasar, M., et al. (2015). Role of ovarian reserve markers, antimüllerian hormone and antral follicle count, as aneuploidy markers in ongoing pregnancies and miscarriages. Fertility and Sterility, 103(5), 1221–1227.e2.
  32. La Marca, A., Grisendi, V., & Griesinger, G. (2013). How much does AMH really vary in normal women? International Journal of Endocrinology.
  33. Deb, S., Campbell, B. K., Pincott-Allen, C., Clewes, J. S., Cumberpatch, G., & Raine-Fenning, N. J. (2012). Quantifying effect of combined oral contraceptive pill on functional ovarian reserve as measured by serum anti-Müllerian hormone and small antral follicle count using three-dimensional ultrasoundUltrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology39(5), 574–580.
  34. Somunkiran, A., Yavuz, T., Yucel, O., & Ozdemir, I. (2007). Anti-Müllerian hormone levels during hormonal contraception in women with polycystic ovary syndromeEuropean Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology134(2), 196–201.
  35. Li, H. W. R., Wong, C. Y. G., Yeung, W. S. B., Ho, P. C., & Ng, E. H. Y. (2011). Serum anti-müllerian hormone level is not altered in women using hormonal contraceptivesContraception.
  36. Johnson, L., Sammel, M. D., Domchek, S., Schanne, A., Prewitt, M., & Gracia, C. (2017). Antimüllerian hormone levels are lower in BRCA2 mutation carriersFertility and Sterility107(5), 1256–1265.e6.
  37. Birch Petersen, K., Hvidman, H. W., Forman, J. L., et al. (2015). Ovarian reserve assessment in users of oral contraception seeking fertility advice on their reproductive lifespanHuman Reproduction30(10), 2364–2375.
  38. Dolleman, M., Verschuren, W. M. M., Eijkemans, M. J. C., Dolle, M. E. T., Jansen, E. H. J. M., Broekmans, F. J. M., & Van Der Schouw, Y. T. (2013). Reproductive and lifestyle determinants of anti-müllerian hormone in a large population-based studyJournal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism.
  39. Kline, J., Tang, A., & Levin, B. (2016). Smoking, alcohol and caffeine in relation to two hormonal indicators of ovarian age during the reproductive yearsMaturitas92, 115–122.
  40. Jung, S., Allen, N., Arslan, A. A., et al. (2017). Anti-Müllerian hormone and risk of ovarian cancer in nine cohortsInternational Journal of Cancer.

Me and my anti-müllerian hormone

  1. Warzecha, D., Szymusik, I., Pietrzak, B., & Wielgos M. (2017). Anti-Mullerian hormone – a marker of upcoming menopause or a questionable guesswork? Neuro Endocrinol Lett.38(2), 75–82. Retrieved from
  2. Tremellen K, Savulescu J. Ovarian reserve screening: A scientific and ethical analysisHum Reprod. 2014.
  3. Podfigurna, A., Lukaszuk, K., Czyzyk, A., et al. (2017). Testing ovarian reserve in pre-menopausal women: why, whom and how? Maturitas.
  4. Bavan, B., Porzig, E., & Baker, V. L. (2011). An assessment of female university students’ attitudes toward screening technologies for ovarian reserveFertility and Sterility96(5), 1195–1199.
  5. La Marca, A., Grisendi, V., & Griesinger, G. (2013). How much does AMH really vary in normal women? International Journal of Endocrinology.
  6. Iliodromiti, S., Salje, B., Dewailly, D., Fairburn, C., Fanchin, R., Fleming, R., … Nelson, S. M. (2017). Non-equivalence of anti-Müllerian hormone automated assays—clinical implications for use as a companion diagnostic for individualised gonadotrophin dosingHuman Reproduction Advanced Access Publication on32(8), 1710–1715.
  7. Just, A. (2015). Statistical Evaluation of the value ranges for the anti-mullerian hormone by age with the automated ECLIA (ElektroChemiLumineszenz ImmunoAssay)/Elecsys/Roche. Not Published.
  8. Iwase, A., Nakamura, T., Nakahara, T., Goto, M., & Kikkawa, F. (2015). Anti-Müllerian Hormone and Assessment of Ovarian Reserve After Ovarian Toxic TreatmentReproductive Sciences22(5), 519–526.
  9. Dezellus, A., Barriere, P., Campone, M., et al. (2017). Prospective evaluation of serum anti-Müllerian hormone dynamics in 250 women of reproductive age treated with chemotherapy for breast cancerEuropean Journal of Cancer79, 72–80.
  10. Iwase, A., Nakamura, T., Nakahara, T., Goto, M., & Kikkawa, F. (2014). Assessment of ovarian reserve using anti-Müllerian hormone levels in benign gynecologic conditions and surgical interventions: a systematic narrative reviewReproductive Biology and Endocrinology : RB&E12, 125.